Glossary

This glossary contains definitions of terms that are often used in relation to bio-based products and public procurement. Please click on a term below to reveal its definition.

A

Agreement on Government Procurement

Agreement within the framework of World Trade Organisation to ensure open, fair and transparent access to public procurement markets.

(Recital 17 and Article 6 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Agriculture

Agriculture is the science, art, or practice of cultivating the soil, producing crops, and raising livestock and in varying degrees the preparation and marketing of the resulting products.

Ancillary purchasing activities

Activities consisting in the provision of support to purchasing activities, in particular in the following forms:

  • technical infrastructure enabling contracting authorities to award public contracts or to conclude framework agreements for works, supplies or services
  • advice on the conduct or design of public procurement procedures
  • preparation and management of procurement procedures on behalf and for the account of the contracting authority concerned

(Recital 70 and Article 2 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

B

Best Price Quality Ratio (BPQR)

A set of criteria, including qualitative, environmental and/or social aspects, linked to the subject-matter of the public contract in question. Such criteria may comprise, for instance:

  • quality, including technical merit, aesthetic and functional characteristics, accessibility design for all users, social, environmental and innovative characteristics and trading and its conditions;
  • organisation, qualification and experience of staff assigned to performing the contract, where the quality of the staff assigned can have a significant impact on the level of performance of the contract;
  • after-sales service and technical assistance, delivery conditions such as delivery date, delivery process and delivery period or period of completion.
(Recitals 49, 89, 90, 92 and Articles 30, 31, 35, 67, 76 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)
Bio-based
  • Derived from biomass. (CEN/TC 411 2014)
  • Composed or derived in whole or in part of biological products issued from the biomass (including plant, animal, and marine or forestry materials).
Bio-based carbon / bio-carbon

Carbon derived from biomass. (CEN/TC 411 2014)

Bio-based carbon content

Fraction of the carbon derived from biomass.

(CEN/TC 411 2014)

Bio-based content / biomass content

Fraction or proportion of a product derived from biomass (CEN/TC 411 2014).

The crucial point about the bio-based content in contrast to the bio-based carbon content is that this includes the total biomass content including oxygen, hydrogen and other molecules coming from the biomass and not only the carbon.

Bio-based economy / Bioeconomy

The bioeconomy […] encompasses the production of renewable biological resources and the conversion of these resources and waste streams into value added products, such as food, feed, bio-based products and bioenergy. The bioeconomy is the sustainable production and conversion of biomass, for a range of food, health, fibre and industrial products and energy. Renewable biomass encompasses any biological material to be used as raw material.

Bio-based material

Material wholly or partly derived from biomass.

Bio-based plastic

Bio-based plastics are plastics manufactured from renewable raw materials. They are not necessary biodegradable. Bio-based plastics consist (partly) of bio-based (renewable) raw materials.

Bio-based product

Product wholly or partly derived from biomass.

The bio-based product is normally characterised by the bio-based carbon content or the bio-based content. For the determination and declaration of the bio-based content and the bio-based carbon content, see the relevant standards of CEN/TC 411.

Product can be an intermediate, material, semi-finished or final product.

The term bio-based product is often used to refer to a product which is partly bio-based. In those cases the claim should be accompanied by a quantification of the bio-based content.

(CEN/TC 411 2014)

Biocatalyst

Molecule or molecular complex consisting of, or derived from, an organism or cell culture (in cell-free or whole-cell forms) that catalyses metabolic reactions in living organisms and/or substrate conversions in various chemical reactions.

Biodegradability

Capability of being degraded by biological activity.

Biodegradable or compostable plastics

Biodegradable plastics are entirely degraded by biological activity (compostable) without leaving behind any residue. They can be manufactured from renewable materials and fossil fuels, as well as mixtures of those.

Biodegradation
  • Degradation caused by biological activity, especially by enzymatic action, leading to a significant change in the chemical structure of a material (CEN/TC 411 2014)
  • Transformation of a substance into new compounds through biochemical reactions or the actions of microorganisms such as bacteria. (U.S. Geological Survey 2007)
  • A process by which microbial organisms transform or alter (through metabolic or enzymatic action) the structure of chemicals introduced into the environment. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2015)
Bioenergy
  • All energy derived from biofuels whereas biofuels are fuels produced directly or indirectly from biomass. Fuel is defined as an energy carrier intended for energy conversion. (FAO 2004).
  • Energy from biomass. (CEN/TC 411 2012)
Biofuel
  • A fuel produced from dry organic matter or combustible oils produced by plants. These fuels are considered renewable as long as the vegetation producing them is maintained or replanted, such as firewood, alcohol fermented from sugar, and combustible oils extracted from soybeans. (Glossary UN Framework Convention on Climate Change)
  • Fuel[s] produced directly or indirectly from biomass. Fuel is defined as an energy carrier intended for energy conversion and can be liquid, solid or gaseous. (FAO 2004 & CEN/TC 411 2012)
  • Liquid or gaseous fuel for transport produced from biomass. (European Parliament and the Council 2009)
  • Liquid fuels from a non-fossil biological origin and a renewable energy source, to be distinguished from fossil fuels. (Eurostat Glossary)
  • Liquid fuels and blending components produced from biomass (plant) feedstocks, used primarily for transportation. (PCAST 2006)
Biogenic

Produced by living organisms.

Biolubricant

Lubricants derived from biomass; whereas lubricants are substances, such as oil or grease, used for minimizing friction, especially in an engine or component.

Standards on biolubricants are discussed concerning the bio-based share and the biodegradability. In CEN the CEN/TC 19/WG 33 is working on standards on biolubricants.

Biomass
  • Material of biological origin excluding material embedded in geological formations and/or fossilized. (CEN/TR 16208:2011; CEN/TC 411 2014)
  • Biomass is organic, non-fossil material of biological origin that can be used for heat production or electricity generation. It includes: wood and wood waste; biogas; municipal solid waste; biofuels. (Eurostat Glossary)
  • The biodegradable fraction of products, waste and residues from biological origin from agriculture (including vegetal and animal substances), forestry and related industries including fisheries and aquaculture, as well as the biodegradable fraction of industrial and municipal waste (European Parliament and the Council 2009)
  • Any organic matter that is available on a renewable or recurring basis, including agricultural crops and trees, wood and wood wastes and residues, plants (including aquatic plants), grasses, residues, fibers, and animal wastes, municipal wastes, and other waste materials. (Biomass Research and Development Act of 2000 7 USC 7624 Note; USITC 2008)
  • Living systems and collection of organic substances produced by living systems that are exploitable as materials, including recent postmortem residues.
Biomaterial

Synthetic or natural material suitable for use in constructing artificial organs and prostheses or to replace bone or tissue. Material exploited in contact with living tissues, organisms, or microorganisms.

Biomaterials are not necessarily the same as bio-based materials or products.

Bioplastic

The term “bioplastics” should ideally be avoided. It is preferable to use bio-based plastic if it is a plastic derived from biomass or biodegradable plastic if it biodegrades. Both categories overlap but there also are bio-based plastics that are not biodegradable as well as biodegradable plastics that are not bio-based.

Biopolymer

Substance composed of one type of biomacromolecules.

A polymer comprised, at least in part, of building blocks called monomers, produced in a biorefinery from renewable feedstocks such as corn. An alternate definition for biopolymer, including all biologically produced polymers like DNA, RNA, and proteins. (USITC 2008)

Biorefinery
  • A biorefinery is a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, and chemicals from biomass. The biorefinery concept is analogous to today's petroleum refineries, which produce multiple fuels and products from petroleum. Industrial biorefineries have been identified as the most promising route to the creation of a new domestic biobased industry. (NREL 2015; Demirbas 2010)
  • Biorefining is the sustainable processing of biomass into a spectrum of marketable products and energy. (International Energy Agency Bioenergy Task 42; Star-Colibri)
  • A biorefinery is an overall concept of a processing plant where biomass feedstocks are converted and extracted into a spectrum of valuable products. (USDOE 1997)
  • Biorefinery refers to the conversion of biomass feedstock into a host of valuable chemicals and energy with minimal waste and emissions. Biorefineries process all kinds of biomass into numerous products.
Biosolvent

Solvents derived from biomass; whereas solvents are liquids in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution. (Oxford dictionaries)

Biosurfactant

Surfactants derived from biomass; whereas surfactants are molecules that consist of one hydrophilic (water-loving) part and one hydrophobic (water-hating or oil-loving) part. (Kjellin & Johansson 2010) or substances that tends to reduce the surface tension of a liquid in which it is dissolved.

Biotechnology
  • The application of science and technology to living organisms, as well as parts, products and models thereof, to alter living or non-living materials for the production of knowledge, goods and services. (OECD 2005; Eurostat Glossary)
  • A set of biological techniques developed through basic research and now applied to research and product development. In particular, the use by industry of recombinant DNA, cell fusion, and new bioprocessing techniques. (Merriam Webster, USDA Glossary)
  • Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use. (UNEP 1992)
  • Integration of natural sciences and engineering in order to achieve the application of organisms, cells, parts thereof, and their molecular analogues for products and services.
Body governed by public law

A body governed by public law means any organization which satisfies the following conditions in a cumulative manner. First, the organization must be established for the specific purpose of meeting needs in the general interest which do not have an industrial or commercial character; secondly, it must have legal personality; and thirdly, it must be financed, for the most part, by the State, regional or local authorities, or other bodies governed by public law. Alternatively and as part of the third criterion, a body governed by public law must be subject to management supervision by the State, regional or local authorities, or other bodies governed by public law or it must have an administrative, managerial or supervisory board, more than half of whose members are appointed by the State, regional or local authorities, or by other bodies governed by public law.

(Recitals 10, 29, 32 and Article 2 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

By-product

An incidental or secondary product made in the manufacture or synthesis of something else.

C

Candidate

An economic operator that has sought an invitation or has been invited to take part in a restricted procedure, in a competitive procedure with negotiation, in a negotiated procedure without prior publication, in a competitive dialogue or in an innovation partnership.

(Recitals 67, 80, 81, 82, 84, 101 and Articles 2, 5, 21, 28, 29, 30, 31, 34, 36, 41, 54, 55, 58, 59, 65, 66, 72, 80, 82, 84 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Cascading use

The sequential use of biogenic raw materials to produce materials and energy.

Central government authorities

Contracting authorities listed in Annex I of EU Directive 2014/24EU and their successor entities.

(Recital 129 and Articles 2, 4, 6 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Central purchasing body

A central purchasing body is a contracting authority which acquires supplies or services which are intended for contracting authorities. It may award public contracts or conclude framework agreements for works, supplies or services intended for contracting authorities.

(Recitals 60, 66, 69, 70 and Articles 2, 37, 39 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Centralised purchasing activities

Activities conducted on a permanent basis, in one of the following forms:

  • the acquisition of supplies and/or services intended for contracting authorities.
  • the award of public contracts or the conclusion of framework agreements for works, supplies or services intended for contracting authorities.

(Recital 70 and Articles 2, 37, 39, of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Certification

Certification is a process by certification bodies established in public or private law which comply with European certification standards, whereby the registration of economic operators of other Member States in an official list or their certification by the competent bodies entails that no further proof or statements can be required other than those requested of national economic operators.

(Articles 44, 64 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Co-product

Any of two or more products coming from the same unit process or product system.

(EN-ISO 14040:2006; EN-ISO 14044:2006)

Competitive dialogue

The competitive dialogue is an award procedure which is used exceptionally in cases of particularly complex contracts, where the use of the open or restricted procedures will not allow the award of the contract, and the use of negotiated procedures cannot be justified. A public contract is considered to be particularly complex where the contracting authorities are not able to define in an objective manner the technical specifications which are required to pursue the project, or they are not able to specify the legal or financial make-up of a project. The procedure is very complex, as it has three main phases and many options within these phases. Firstly, the advertisement phase obliges contracting authorities to publish a contract notice or a descriptive document outlining their needs and basic specifications of the project. After that phase and before launching a competitive dialogue for the award of a contract, contracting authorities may, using a technical dialogue, seek or accept advice which may be used in the preparation of the specifications, provided that such advice does not have the effect of precluding competition.

(Recitals 42, 43, 84 and Articles 2, 26, 30, 54, 65, 84 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Competitive procedures with negotiations (CPN)

Negotiated procedures with prior notification provide for selection of candidates in two rounds. In the first round, all interested contractors may submit their tenders and the contracting authority selects, from the candidates, those who will be invited to negotiate. In the second round, negotiations with various candidates take place and the successful tender is selected. In principle, the minimum number of candidates to be selected is three, provided that there is a sufficient number of suitable candidates.

(Recitals 42, 43, 44, 45, 49 and Articles 2, 26, 29, 48, 65 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Comprehensive Environmental Criteria

Criteria which take into account more aspects or higher levels of environmental performance, for use by authorities that want to go further in supporting environmental and innovation goals.

(Communication “Public Procurement for a better environment” COM/2008 and EU GPP criteria for 20 products groups)

Comprehensive GPP criteria

Comprehensive GPP criteria take into account more aspects or higher levels of environmental performance, for use by authorities that want to go further in supporting environmental and innovation goals.

(Communication “Public Procurement for a better environment” COM/2008 and EU GPP criteria for 20 products groups)

Conditions on Contractual performance

Contracting authorities may require economic operators to indicate any share of the contract he may intend to subcontract to third parties and any proposed subcontractors, without prejudice to issues of principal economic operator's liability.

(Recitals 3, 32, 37, 74, 90, 94, 97, 98, 99, 104 and Articles 43, 44, 70, 71, 72, 73 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Conditions relating to taxes, environmental protection, employment protection provisions and working conditions

Contracting authorities may request economic operators to indicate that they have taken account, when drawing up their tender the obligations relating to tax compliance, to environmental protection, to employment protection and to the working conditions which are in force in its Member State.

Conditions, socio-economic

Contracting authorities may lay down special conditions relating to the performance of a contract, and in particular, concern social and environmental considerations.

(Recitals 37, 40, 41, 45, 47, 75, 88, 91, 92, 93, 95, 97, 98, 99, 101, 104, 105, 123, 128 and

Contract award notices

Contracting authorities which have awarded a public contract or concluded a framework agreement must send a notice of the results of the award procedure no later than 48 days after the award of the contract or the conclusion of the framework agreement. In the case of framework agreements, contracting authorities are not bound to send a notice of the results of the award procedure for each contract based on that agreement. Contracting authorities must send a notice of the result of the award of contracts based on a dynamic purchasing system within 48 days of the award of each contract.

(Article 50 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Contract notices

Contracting authorities which wish to award a public contract or a framework agreement by open or restricted procedures, negotiated procedures with prior advertisement, or through the procedures of a competitive dialogue, they must make known their intention by publishing a contract notice. Also, when contracting authorities wish to set up a dynamic purchasing system, they must publish a contract notice. Furthermore, when contracts are to be awarded based on a dynamic purchasing system, contracting authorities must publish a simplified contract notice. Contract notices must be published in full in an official language of the EU as chosen by the contracting authority, this original language version constituting the sole authentic text. A summary of the important elements of each notice must be published in the other official languages. The costs of publication of such notices by must be borne by the European Commission.

(Article 49 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Contract Value calculation

The calculation of the estimated value of value of public contracts, framework agreements and dynamic purchasing systems is based on the total amount payable, net of VAT, as estimated by the contracting authority.

(Recitals 20, 42, 83, 107 and Articles 5, 58, 72 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Contracting authorities

Contracting authorities define a variety of organizations that fall within the remit of the State, central or local government and also bodies which are governed by public law.

Contracting authorities also made to cover entities, which receive more than 50% subsidies by the state or other contracting authorities. Contracting authorities cover central government of party-signatories to the World Trade Organization Government Procurement Agreement (GPA).

(The most important records are Recital 10 and Articles 1, 2 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Contractor

Any natural or legal person or public entity or group of such persons and/or bodies which offers on the market the execution of works.

(Recitals 9, 78, 105 and Articles 5, 64, 71, 72, 73, 84 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Core Environmental Criteria

Criteria designed to allow key area(s) of environmental performance of a product and aimed at keeping administrative costs for companies to a minimum.

(Communication “Public Procurement for a better environment” COM/2008 and EU GPP criteria for 20 products groups)

Core GPP criteria

Core GPP criteria are designed to allow easy application of GPP, focussing on the key area(s) of environmental performance of a product and aimed at keeping administrative costs for companies to a minimum.

(Communication “Public Procurement for a better environment” COM/2008 and EU GPP criteria for 20 products groups)

D

Degradation

Irreversible process leading to a significant change in the structure of a product, typically characterized by a change of properties (e.g. integrity, molecular mass or structure, mechanical strength) and/or by fragmentation, affected by environmental conditions, proceeding over a period of time and comprising one or more steps. (CEN/TC 411 2014)

Design contests

Procedures which enable the contracting authority to acquire, mainly in the fields of town and country planning, architecture and engineering or data processing, a plan or design selected by a jury after being put out to competition with or without the award of prizes.

(Recital 120 and Articles 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 9, 15, 17, 22, 78-82 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Durability

Ability of a product to retain the values of its properties under specified conditions. (CEN/TC 411 2014)

The conditions include several topics depending on the product such as wear, pressure, damage or durability concerning UV radiation.

Dynamic purchasing system

A dynamic purchasing system is a completely electronic process for making commonly used purchases, the characteristics of which, as generally available on the market, meet the requirements of the contracting authority, which is limited in duration and open throughout its validity to any economic operator which satisfies the selection criteria and has submitted an indicative tender that complies with the specification.

(Recitals 63, 64, 65, 66, 68, 69, 71 and Articles 5, 34, 35, 36, 37, 39, 50, 51, 55, 58, 84 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

E

Eco-label

Certificate involving environmental management criteria.

(Regulation (EC) No 1221/2009; Regulation (EC) No 66/2010 on the EU Eco-label and Article 43 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS)

Environmental Management System attesting compliance with certain environmental management systems or standards.

(Article 45 of Regulation (EC) No 1221/2009)

Economic and financial standing of economic operators

Proof of the economic operator’s economic and financial standing may be furnished by appropriate statements from banks or, where appropriate, evidence of relevant professional risk indemnity insurance, or the presentation of balance-sheets or extracts from the balance-sheets, where publication of the balance-sheet is required under the law of the country in which the economic operator is established, or statements of the operator’s overall turnover. The period which such statements should cover must be for a maximum of the last three financial years.

(Recital 15 and Articles 19, 58, 60, 63 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Economic operator

Economic operator is any natural or legal person or public entity or group of such persons and/or entities, including any temporary association of undertakings, which offers the execution of works and/or a work, the supply of products or the provision of services on the market.

(The most important records are Recitals 14, 15 and Articles 1, 2, 19, 64 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Electronic auction

An electronic auction is a repetitive process involving an electronic device for the presentation of new prices, revised downwards, or new values concerning certain elements of tenders, which occurs after an initial full evaluation of the tenders, enabling them to be ranked using automatic evaluation methods. Consequently, certain service contracts and certain works contracts having as their subject-matter intellectual performances, such as the design of works, may not be the object of electronic auctions.

(Recital 67 and Article 35 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Electronic means

Electronic equipment for the processing (including digital compression) and storage of data which is transmitted, conveyed and received by wire, by radio, by optical means or by other electromagnetic means.

(Recitals 52, 53, 54, 57, 67, 68, 72, 80, 85, 128 and Articles 2, 7, 22, 27, 28, 34, 36, 37, 51, 53, 54, 84 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Environmental management

Contracting authorities may require an indication of the environmental management measures that the economic operator will be able to apply when performing the contract.

(Recital 88 and Article 62 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Evidence of environmental management may be proved by reference to the Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) or by the production of certificates drawn up by independent bodies attesting the compliance of the economic operator with certain environmental management standards.

EU GPP (green public procurement) criteria

Criteria which aim at reducing the administrative burden for economic operators and for public administrations implementing Green Public Procurement.

(Public procurement for a better environment COM(2008) 400 final)

European Single Procurement Document (ESPD)

Formal statement by an economic operator consisting of a self-declaration as preliminary evidence in replacement of certificates issued by public authorities or third parties that the relevant ground for exclusion does not apply and/or that the relevant selection criterion is fulfilled and the relevant information as required by the contracting authority shall be provided upon request by the contracting authority.

(Recital 84 and Article 59 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU and Regulation No 2016/7/EU)

Exclusion Criteria

Reasons for automatic exclusion:

  • Terrorism or offences linked to terrorist activities
  • Money laundering or terrorist financing
  • Child labour
  • Trafficking of human beings
  • Participation in a criminal organization
  • Corruption

Reasons for discretionary exclusion:

  • Fraud against the financial interests of the European Union
  • Bankruptcy or compulsory winding up or administration
  • Professional misconduct or serious misrepresentation
  • Violation of social, environmental or labour law
  • Non-payment of social security contributions
  • Non-fulfillment of obligations relating to the payment of taxes
  • Undue influence
  • Agreements aimed at distorting competition
  • Distortion of competition due to prior involvement
  • Conflicts of interest
  • Significant or persistent deficiencies in the performance of prior contracts

(Recitals 39, 40, 84, 85, 100, 101, 105 and Articles 41, 56, 57, 59, 60, 63, 71 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

F

Feed

Feed (or feedingstuff) is any substance or product, including additives, whether processed, partially processed or unprocessed, intended to be used for oral feeding to animals.

(Eurostat Glossary, Source: Regulation 178/2002 of 28 January 2002 laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety)

Food

Food (or foodstuff) relates to any substance or product, whether processed, partially processed or unprocessed, intended to be, or reasonably expected to be ingested by humans.

(Eurostat Glossary, Source: Regulation 178/2002 of 28 January 2002 laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety)

Framework agreement

A framework agreement is an agreement between one or more contracting authorities and one or more economic operators, the purpose of which is to establish the terms governing contracts to be awarded during a given period, in particular with regard to price and, where appropriate, the quantity envisaged.

(Recitals 57, 60, 61, 62, 68, 69, 71, 81, 82 and Articles 2, 5, 33, 35, 36, 37, 39, 50, 55, 58, 59, 72, 84 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Fuel

An energy carrier intended for energy conversion, which can be liquid, solid or gaseous. (FAO 2004 & CEN/TC 411 2012)

In the context of the bioeconomy fuel is mainly used as a term for liquid fuels (petrol and diesel fuels) while gaseous and solid fuels normally are not included.

G

Green Chemistry

Green chemistry, also known as sustainable chemistry, is the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous substances. Green chemistry applies across the life cycle of a chemical product, including its design, manufacture, and use.

(Anastas & Warner 1998, also US EPA 2011)

Green Public Procurement (GPP)

Public and Utilities purchasing practices with environmental protection as sole objective.

(Communication “Public Procurement for a better environment” COM/2008 and EU GPP criteria for 20 products groups)

Green Public Procurement (GPP) criteria

GPP criteria will, in principle, be formulated as minimum technical specifications that all bids have to comply with. Some of the GPP criteria may also be formulated as environmental award criteria, to stimulate additional environmental performance without being mandatory and therefore without foreclosing the market for products not reaching the proposed level of performance.

(Communication “Public Procurement for a better environment” COM/2008 and EU GPP criteria for 20 products groups)

Greenhouse gas
  • The atmospheric gases responsible for causing global warming and climate change. The major GHGs are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O).
    Less prevalent (but very powerful) greenhouse gases are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).
    (Glossary UN Framework Convention on Climate Change)

  • Greenhouse gases constitute a group of gases contributing to global warming and climate change. The Kyoto Protocol, an environmental agreement adopted by many of the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1997 to curb global warming, covers six greenhouse gases:
    • non-fluorinated gases: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) , nitrous oxide (N2O)
    • fluorinated gases: hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)

Converting them to carbon dioxide (or CO2) equivalents makes it possible to compare them and to determine their individual and total contributions to global warming.
(Eurostat Glossary)

I

Industrial Biotechnology
  • The manufacture of liquid fuels and chemical products using enzymes, micro-organisms, fermentation, or biocatalysis at any stage of production, regardless of the type of raw materials used. In this case, the raw materials can be biomass, fossil fuel-based, or inorganic substances. (USITC 2008)
  • The manufacture of liquid fuels and chemical products from renewable resources, regardless of the type of processing technology used. (USITC 2008)
  • Industrial biotechnology - also known as white biotechnology - uses enzymes and micro-organisms to make biobased products in sectors as diverse as chemicals, food and feed, detergents, paper and pulp, textiles and bioenergy. (High-Level Group on KET 2011))
  • [Industrial biotechnology is] the application of biotechnology to the eco-efficient production and processing of chemicals, materials and bioenergy. (OECD 2011)
Innovation or Innovation Agenda

The implementation of a new or significantly improved product, service or process, including but not limited to production, building or construction processes, a new marketing method, or a new organisational method in business practices, workplace organisation or external relations inter alia with the purpose of helping to solve societal challenges or to support the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth.

(Recitals 47, 48, 74, 95, 123, 124 and Articles 2, 31, 70, 76 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Innovation partnership

Award procedure designed to improve market pull by combining a research contract with a realistic chance to obtain a first purchase if the research result fulfils pre-defined performance levels. Innovation partnerships are structured in successive phases with intermediate targets and payments and cut-off options.

(Recitals 49, 84 and Articles 2, 5, 26, 31, 54, 65 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Intermediate product

Output from a unit process that is input to other unit processes that require further transformation within the system.

(EN-ISO 14040; EN-ISO 14044)

J

Joint and Centralized procurement

The ability and freedom on the part of contracting authorities for the procurement of products or services and the design and execution of work contracts to be awarded jointly. The decision to award contracts jointly must be determined by qualitative and economic criteria, which may be defined by national law.

(Recitals 69, 70, 71, 72, 73 and Article 2, 37, 38, 39 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

K

Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)

Qualitative or quantitative measurements which relate to and are contractually linked with the performance of the contract.

Knowledge-based bioeconomy

The application of the knowledge of life sciences in new, sustainable, environmentally friendly, and competitive products.

L

Label

Any document, certificate or attestation confirming that the works, products, services, processes or procedures in question meet certain requirements.

(Recitals 74, 75 and Articles 2, 43 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Label requirements

Requirements to be met by the works, products, services, processes or procedures in question in order to obtain the label concerned.

(Recitals 74, 75 and Articles 2, 43 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Life cycle

All consecutive and/or interlinked stages, including research and development to be carried out, production, trading and its conditions, transport, use and maintenance, throughout the existence of the product or the works or the provision of the service, from raw material acquisition or generation of resources to disposal, clearance and end of service or utilisation.

(Recitals 74, 95, 96, 97 and Articles 2, 42, 67, 68 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
  • The compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle. (EN-ISO 14040:2006; EN-ISO 14044:2006)
  • Investigation and valuation of the environmental impacts of a given product or service caused or necessitated by its existence.

(Recitals 74, 95, 96, 97 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Life Cycle Costing (LCC)

Life-cycle costing is an award criterion which covers parts or all of the following costs over the life cycle of a product, service or works:

  • costs, borne by the contracting authority or other users, such as:
    • costs relating to acquisition,
    • costs of use, such as consumption of energy and other resources,
    • maintenance costs,
    • end of life costs, such as collection and recycling costs.
  • costs imputed to environmental externalities linked to the product, service or works during its life cycle, provided their monetary value can be determined and verified; such costs may include the cost of emissions of greenhouse gases and of other pollutant emissions and other climate change mitigation costs.

(Recitals 92, 95, 96, 129 and Articles 67, 68 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Local authorities

Authorities of the administrative units falling under NUTS 3 and smaller administrative units, as referred to in Regulation (EC) No 1059/2003

(Recitals 7, 60 and Article 2 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

M

Market consultation

An integral part of the public procurement process, usually commencing by a Prior Information Notice (PIN) in the OJEU, in which contacting authorities outline their procurement requirements. The publication of a market consultation through the Prior Information Notice (PIN) describes the consultation process on the part of contracting authorities and announces the forthcoming public procurement exercise. The aim of a market consultation is to help contracting authorities determine the state of current and future markets in relation to their specifications and needs, and assist suppliers, contractors, service providers and concessionaires by providing information relevant to the expected requirements of contracting authorities which will be applied in the procurement process.

(Article 40 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Market dialogue

A process which aims at the interaction between contracting authorities and suppliers before the start of the public procurement procedures. Through a market dialogue, contracting authorities seek to improve market knowledge, to identify products and/or services which cannot be currently specified, to determine innovative solutions and to make suppliers, experts, innovation advisors, end-users and other with relevant knowledge aware of public needs which could be covered by future procurement exercises.

Market testing

Participation of economic operators in the preparatory stages of a public contract.

Mass balance

Relationship between input and output of a specific substance within a system in which the output from the system cannot exceed the input into the system.

(CEN/TC 411 2014)

Material

Substance that is exploited by humans in their practical activities.

Material use / Industrial Material use

In “material use” the biomass serves as raw material for the (industrial) production of all kinds of goods as well as their direct use in products. This clearly distinguishes it from energy use, in which the biomass serves purely as an energy source.

Most economically advantageous tender (MEAT)

The most economically advantageous tender offer is to be made on a series of factors and determinants chosen by the contracting entity for the particular contract in question. These factors include:

  • price;
  • cost, using a cost-effectiveness approach such as life-cycle costing;
  • the best price-quality ratio (BPQR, to be assessed on the basis of award criteria linked to the subject-matter of the contract);
  • organisation, qualification and experience of the staff delivering the contract where this can significantly impact the level of performance of the contract.

(Recitals 89, 90, 92, 96 and Articles 35, 56, 67 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

N

Negotiated procedures

Negotiated procedures are such procedures for the award of public contracts whereby contracting authorities consult contractors of their choice and negotiate the terms of the contract with one or more of them. There are two different kinds of negotiated procedures: i) competitive negotiated procedures with prior notification and ii) negotiated procedures without prior notification.

(Recitals 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 49, 50, 80, 82, 84, 120 and Articles 2, 26, 29, 30, 31, 32, 48, 54, 55, 65, 75, 84 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Negotiated procedures without prior notification

Negotiated procedures without prior notification may be conducted in one single round. Contracting authorities are allowed to choose whichever contractor they want, begin negotiations directly with this contractor and award the contract to him. The Directive provides for only a few rules with which this procedure must comply. A prior notice in the Official Journal is not required. Grounds for using negotiated procedure without prior advertisement:

  • Research and development;
  • Technical or artistic reasons;
  • Reasons connected with the protection of exclusive rights;
  • Extreme urgency brought by unforeseeable events not attributable to the contracting authorities;
  • Additional deliveries and supplies or works which would cause disproportionate technical operational and maintenance difficulties, if tendered.

(Recitals 50, 80, 120 and Articles 2, 26, 32, 75, 84 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Non-food

An official definition of “non-food” does not exist. In general it means all uses except of food (and feed) uses.

NUTS

Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics is a hierarchical system for dividing up the economic territory of the EU for the purpose of:

  • The collection, development and harmonisation of European regional statistics;
  • Socio-economic analyses of the regions.

NUTS 1: major socio-economic regions

NUTS 2: basic region for the application of regional policies

NUTS 3: small regions for specific diagnoses

(Article 2 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU and Regulation No. 1059/2003 with amendments)

O

Official lists of approved economic operators

Official lists of approved contractors, suppliers or service providers exist in order to assist contracting authorities with the qualitative evaluation of tenderers and candidates in public procurement contracts. Registration in official lists of approved economic operators can be demonstrated by the issue of a certificate which must state the references which enabled the registration in the list and the classification given in that list. The conditions for registration in such lists must reflect the personal situation of the candidate or tenderer to the extent of its participation in a criminal organization, corruption, fraud, money laundering, bankruptcy, winding up, compulsory administration, professional misconduct, serious misrepresentation, ability to pursue a professional activity, economic and financial standing, technical and professional capacity, quality assurance standards, and where appropriate environmental management standards. Registration in approved lists must not constitute a presumption of suitability of the registered undertakings, except for the conditions upon which their registration is based.

(Article 64 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Open procedures

Open procedures are those where every interested supplier, contractor or service provider may submit an offer.

(Articles 27, 32, 56, 57 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

P

Performance-based specifications

Criteria related to:

  • social considerations, such as the supply or utilisation of fair trade products, the requirement that a product is of fair trade origin, the requirement to pay a minimum price and price premium to producers, measures for the promotion of equality of women and men at work, measures for the increased participation of women in the labour market and the reconciliation of work and private life, the recruitment of disadvantaged persons, measures aiming at the protection of health of the staff involved in the production process, the favouring of social integration of disadvantaged persons or members of vulnerable groups, the employment of long-term job-seekers, the implementation of training measures for the unemployed or young persons;
  • environmental considerations such as the delivery, package and disposal of products, and in respect of works and services contracts, waste minimisation or resource efficiency, the requirement of non- toxic chemicals in manufacturing, the requirement that services are provided using energy-efficient machines, the protection of the environment or animal welfare.

(Recitals 3, 32, 37, 74, 90, 94, 97, 98, 99, 104 and Articles 43, 44, 70, 71, 72, 73 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Plastic

Generic term used in the case of polymeric material that may contain other substances to improve performance and/or reduce costs.

(Vert et al. 2012)

Polymer

Substance composed of macromolecules, which consist of a sequence of one or more repeating units.

Pre-Commercial Procurement (PCP)

Pre-Commercial Procurement (PCP) is the procurement of research and development of new innovative solutions before they are commercially available.

(Recital 47 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU Communication from the Commission COM (2007) 799)

Previous experience of economic operators

For service and supplies contracts, evidence of technical ability may be provided by a list of the principal deliveries supplied or the main services provided in the past three years, with the sums, dates and recipients, whether public or private, of such supplies and services. Evidence of delivery of supplies and services provided must be given by means of certificates issued or countersigned by the competent authority, where the recipient was a contracting authority itself. In case that the recipient is a private purchaser, evidence must be provided by the purchaser’s certification. In case that the purchaser cannot provide any certification, a declaration by the economic operator should be sufficient evidence of previous experience relevant to its technical abilities.

(Recital 94 and Articles 58, 63, 67 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Prior information notices (PINs)

Prior information notices are notices sent by contracting authorities as soon as possible after the beginning of the budgetary year, the estimated total value of the contracts or the framework agreements by product area which they intend to award over the following 12 months for publication to the Official Journal or notices published by contracting authorities themselves on their buyer profile through the internet.

(Articles 48, 51, 52 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Procurement document

Any document produced or referred to by the contracting authority to describe or determine elements of the procurement or the procedure, including the contract notice, the prior information notice where it is used as a means of calling for competition, the technical specifications, the descriptive document, proposed conditions of contract, formats for the presentation of documents by candidates and tenderers, information on generally applicable obligations and any additional documents.

(Recitals 52, 53, 57, 58, 61, 78, 80, 81, 83, 104 and Articles 2, 5, 19, 22, 29, 31, 32, 33, 35, 36, 42, 45, 46, 47, 53, 54, 56, 58, 67, 68, 70, 71, 72, 84 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Procurement service provider

A public or private body which offers ancillary purchasing activities on the market.

(Articles 2, 24 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Product
  • Substance, material or object resulting from a production process. (CEN/TC 411 2014)
  • Any goods or service. (EN-ISO 14040; EN-ISO 14044 - adapted from ISO 14021:1999 and ISO 9000:2005.)
Public contracts

Public contracts are contracts for pecuniary interest concluded in writing between one or more economic operators and one or more contracting authorities and having as their object the execution of works, the supply of products or the provision of services.

(Recitals 1, 36, 39, 69, 73, 100, Title II and Articles 1, 2, 5, 18 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Public Procurement

Ability of State and public authorities and Utilities to purchase goods, works and services to pursue public services.

(The most important records are Recitals 1, 2, 4 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Public Sector Procurement

The Public Sector Directive is applicable to the award of public contracts between economic operators and contracting authorities.

Public service concessions

Service concession is a contract of the same type as a public service contract except for the fact that the consideration for the provision of services consists either solely in the right to exploit the service or in this right together with payment.

(Recitals 11,18,19,29,23, 68 and Articles 1, 5 (1a) of EU Directive 2014/23/EU)

Public service contracts

Public service contracts are public contracts other than public works or supply contracts having as their object the provision of services referred to in Annex II of the Directive. A public contract having as its object both products and services must be considered as a ‘public service contract’ if the value of the services in question exceeds that of the products covered by the contract.

(Recitals 8, 23, 27, 30, 67, 70 and Articles 2, 4, 5, 6, 32, 35, 78 83 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Public supply contracts

Public supply contracts are public contracts having as their object the purchase, lease, rental or hire purchase, with or without option to buy, of products. A public contract having as its object the supply of products and which also covers, as an incidental matter, placement and installation operations must be considered as a public supply contract.

(Articles 2, 4, 5, 19, 32, 45, 83 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Public works concessions

Public works concession is a contract of the same type as a public works contract except for the fact that the consideration for the works to be carried out consists either solely in the right to exploit the work or in this right together with payment.

(Recitals 11,18,19,20, 23, 68 and Articles 1, 5 (1b) of EU Directive 2014/23/EU)

Public works contracts

Public works contracts are public contracts which have as their object either the execution or both the design and execution, of works, or the completion, by whatever means, of a work corresponding to the requirements specified by the contracting authority. A work means the outcome of building or civil engineering works taken as a whole which is sufficient of itself to fulfill an economic or technical function.

(Recitals 8, 67 and Articles 2, 4, 5, 6, 19, 22, 32, 35, 83 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Q

Quality assurance standards

Proof of quality assurance standards of economic operators may be furnished by the production of certificates drawn up by independent bodies attesting the compliance of the economic operator with certain European series quality assurance standards. In the event that the economic operator cannot produce such documentation, contracting authorities must recognize equivalent certificates from bodies established in Member States and also accept other evidence of equivalent quality assurance measures from economic operators.

(Articles 62 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

R

Raw material / feedstock

Primary or secondary material that is used to produce a product.

(EN-ISO 14040; EN-ISO 14044)

In the context of the bioeconomy, usually raw material is used as a synonym to feedstock.

Regional authorities

Authorities listed non-exhaustively in NUTS 1 and 2, as referred to in Regulation (EC) No 1059.

(Article 2 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Renewable material

Material that is composed of biomass and that can be continually replenished. (CEN/TC 411 2014)

Reserved contracts

Member States may reserve the right to participate in public contract award procedures to sheltered workshops or provide for such contracts to be performed in the context of sheltered employment programmes where most of the employees concerned are handicapped persons who, by reason of the nature or the seriousness of their disabilities cannot carry on occupations under normal conditions.

(Articles 20, 77 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Restricted procedures

Restricted procedures are those procedures for the award of public contracts whereby only those contractors invited by the contracting authority may submit tenders. The selection of the winning tender usually takes place in two rounds. In the first round, all interested contractors may submit their interest and the contracting authority selects, from the candidates, those who will be invited to tender. In principle, the minimum number of candidates to be selected is five. In the second round, bids are submitted and the successful tender is selected.

(Recitals 42, 44, 46, 63, 84 and Articles 26, 28, 32, 34, 35, 48, 54, 65 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

S

Selection criteria

Criteria related to:

  • suitability to pursue the professional activity;
  • economic and financial standing;
  • technical and professional ability.

(Recitals 63, 64, 66, 84, 128 and Articles 34, 35, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 63, 65, 80 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Service provider

A natural or legal person or public entity or group of such persons and/or bodies which offers on the market the provision of services.

(Recitals 23, 25, 28, 29, 33, 35, 71, 73, 114 and Articles 2, 24, 64, 76, 79 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Simplified contract notice

A simplified contract notice is a notice used in a dynamic purchasing system must include the following information: the country, name and e-mail address of the contracting authority, publication reference of the contract notice for the dynamic purchasing system, the e-mail address at which the technical specification and additional documents relating to the dynamic purchasing system are available, the subject of contract and a description by reference number(s) of ‘CPV’ nomenclature and the quantity or extent of the contract to be awarded the time frame for submitting indicative tenders.

(Article 34 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Sub-central contracting authorities

All contracting authorities which are not central government authorities.

(Articles 2, 4, 6, 26, 28, 48 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Subject-matter of contract

Criteria which relate to the works, supplies or services to be provided under that contract in any respect and at any stage of their life cycle, including factors involved in:

  • the specific process of production, provision or trading of those works, supplies or services;
  • a specific process for another stage of their life cycle;

even where such factors do not form part of their material substance.

(Recitals 8, 67, 75, 78, 83, 92, 98, 104 and Articles 3, 16, 29, 33, 35, 42, 43, 45, 46, 58, 67, 70, 84 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Subsidized contracts

Contracts subsidized by more than 50% by contracting authorities are considered subsidized contracts:

  • contracts which are subsidized directly by contracting authorities by more than 50% and the estimated value of which, net of VAT, is equal to or greater than EUR 6,242,000;
    • where those contracts involve civil engineering activities;
    • where those contracts involve building work for hospitals, facilities intended for sports, recreation and leisure, school and university buildings and buildings used for administrative purposes;
  • service contracts which are subsidized directly by contracting authorities by more than 50% and the estimated value of which, net of VAT, is equal to or greater than EUR 249,000 and which are connected with a works contract.

(Articles 13 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Supplier

A natural or legal person or public entity or group of such persons and/or bodies which offers on the market the supply of products.

(Recitals 73, 108 and Articles 32, 64, 71 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Sustainable Public Procurement

Public and Utilities purchasing practices with a blend of environmental, innovation and commercial objectives.

(Recitals 2, 41, 47, 91, 93, 95, 96, 123 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

T

Technical and professional ability

Evidence of the technical and professional ability of economic operators may be furnished by a range of documentation provided by economic operators according to the nature, quantity or importance, and use of the works, supplies or services they intend to tender for. The ability of economic operators to provide a service or a product or to execute the envisaged works may be evaluated with reference to their skills, efficiency, experience and reliability.

(Recital 15 and Articles 19, 58, 63 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Technical expertise

The technical and professional expertise of economic operators could be furnished by documentation providing an indication of the technicians or technical bodies involved directly or indirectly with the economic operator. Emphasis should be placed to those resources responsible for quality control. In cases of public works contracts, the technical and professional expertise of the economic operator can be proved by identifying those upon whom the contractor can call in order to carry out the works.

The technical capacity of economic operators can also be evidenced by means of a description of the technical facilities, measures and systems used by the supplier or service provider for ensuring quality control. Relevant to this ground of technical capacity is a description of the operator’s research and development facilities.

In services, works and construction projects, the technical capacity of economic operators can be proved by a statement covering the average annual manpower of the service provider or the contractor and the number of managerial staff for the last three years. In addition, a statement of the tools, plant or technical equipment available to the service provider or contractor for carrying out the contract could also be requested by contracting authorities.

(Article 60 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Technical specifications

The technical specifications for public contracts must be formulated:

  • by reference to mandatory national technical rules, which are compatible with EU law;
  • by reference, in order of preference, to national standards transposing European standards, European technical approvals, common technical specifications, international standards, other technical reference systems established by the European standardization bodies or - when these do not exist - to national standards, national technical approvals or national technical specifications relating to the design, calculation and execution of the works and use of the products;
  • by reference to performance or functional requirements which may include environmental characteristics;
  • by reference to detailed specifications as defined by European or national eco-labels which are drawn up on the basis of scientific information and adopted using accessible procedures to all interested parties.
  • by reference to appropriate means of proof, such as a technical dossier of the manufacturer or a test report from a recognized body such as test and calibration laboratories and certification and inspection bodies.

Each reference must be accompanied by the words ‘or equivalent’.

The technical specifications must be set out in the contract documentation, such as contract notices, contract documents or additional documents. Whenever possible these technical specifications should be defined so as to take into account accessibility criteria for people with disabilities or design for all users.

(Recitals 3, 71, 74, 76, 77, 81, 90, 92, 99 and Articles 2, 26, 29, 31, 35, 36, 42, 43, 44 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Tenderer

An economic operator who has submitted a tender is designated as a ‘tenderer’.

(Article 2 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Threshold for public contracts

The Public Sector Directive applies to public contracts which have a value exclusive of value-added tax (VAT) estimated to be equal to or greater than certain thresholds.

  • EUR 5,186,000 for public works contracts;
  • EUR 134,000 for public supply and service contracts awarded by central government authorities and design contests organised by such authorities;
  • EUR 207,000 for public supply and service contracts awarded by sub-central contracting authorities and design contests organised by such authorities;
  • EUR 750,000 for public service contracts for social and other specific services.

(Recitals 18, 19, 107, 114, 115, 116, 117, 129, 134 and Articles 1, 4, 5, 6, 17, 74, 78, 85 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)

Total of all costs, direct or indirect resulting from acquisition of products or services during the period of use.

U

Utilities

Contracting entities operating in the fields of energy, transport, water and postal sectors.

(EU Directive 2014/25/EU)

V

Variants

Variants are alternative tender offers submitted by economic operators which meet minimum technical requirements for products or services and are in advanced permitted by Contracting Authorities in the contract documents and only where the criterion for award is that of the most economically advantageous tender.

(Recital 48 and Article 45 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

W

Work

The outcome of building or civil engineering works taken as a whole which is sufficient in itself to fulfil an economic or technical function.

(Article 2 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)

Written or in writing

Any expression consisting of words or figures which can be read, reproduced and subsequently communicated, including information transmitted and stored by electronic means.

(Recital 18 of EU Directive 2014/24/EU)